By Paul Dukes
With its breadth of scope and conciseness of presentation, this 3rd variation of A background of Russia should be valuable to scholars of eu and Russian background, and likewise to scholars of Russian language, literature, and social science.
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Extra info for A History of Russia: Medieval, Modern, Contemporary c. 882–1996
However, he gained some consolation from founding what came to be known later as the Golden Horde with its capital at Sarai on the Lower Volga. Batu inaugurated the custom that was to last for 200 years of the INVASION AND DISUNITY 27 Russian princes coming to Sarai to pledge their allegiance and to pay their tribute. Emissaries from as far away as Western Europe also came to Sarai or passed through it on their way to the Great Khan, the most famous of them being Marco Polo in the late thirteenth century.
Forest dwellers would often go in for bee-keeping, from which the honey and even more the wax could be exchanged or sold for internal or external trade. A further companion or alternative to hunting, as in later days, was fishing. Hunting or fishing, bee-keeping or farming, Kievan Russians in the countryside often lived in a near-subsistence manner, salt and metal artefacts being among the few items of daily use that had to be purchased. Nevertheless, few rural inhabitants could be completely unconscious of the possibilities of selling surpluses for urban consumption and industry or for export, and most of them would be liable for taxes.
21 Hunting was subject to strict regulations, since it was often part of even a nobleman's livelihood as well as his pastime. For the rank and file, particularly those to the north, hunting was a basic necessity as a source of food and clothing and, especially in the case of furs and hides, a provider of the means of paying taxes or engaging in commerce. Forest dwellers would often go in for bee-keeping, from which the honey and even more the wax could be exchanged or sold for internal or external trade.
A History of Russia: Medieval, Modern, Contemporary c. 882–1996 by Paul Dukes