By Toby Seddon
Why are a few psychoactive elements considered as ‘dangerous drugs’, to be managed through the felony legislation inside of a world prohibition regime, when others – from alcohol and tobacco, via to these we name ‘medicines’ – are visible and controlled very otherwise? A historical past of substances lines a family tree of the development and governance of the ‘drug challenge’ during the last two hundred years, calling into query essentially the most basic rules during this box: from ‘addiction’ to the very inspiration of ‘drugs’. on the center of the e-book is the declare that it used to be with the emergence within the past due eighteenth century of contemporary liberal capitalism, with its particular emphasis on freedom, that our issues concerning the intake of a few of those ingredients started to grow. And, certainly, notions of freedom, loose will and accountability stay crucial to the drug query this day. Pursuing an leading edge inter-disciplinary procedure, A heritage of gear presents an educated and insightful account of the origins of up to date drug coverage. will probably be crucial interpreting for college students and lecturers operating in legislation, criminology, sociology, social coverage, heritage and political technology.
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Extra info for A History of Drugs: Drugs and Freedom in the Liberal Age
As Rose (2007: 4) puts it, we should ‘try to chart the way in which multiple shifts enable something new to emerge – something that does not stabilize, but continues to mutate’. The three events I investigate in turn in Chapters 3, 4 and 5 respectively are each legislative: the Pharmacy Act of 1868, the Dangerous Drugs Act of 1920 and the Drugs Act 2005 (selected extracts from these Acts are presented in the Appendices). This focus on legislation reﬂects my concern with regulatory matters, as set out in the previous chapter.
This view also resonates strongly with the classical liberal notion of the individual as ‘an isolated atom of preference-motivated choice and action’ (Burchell, 1991: 130), where ‘preference’ corresponds to Edwards’ ‘desire’ and ‘choice’ to his ‘will’. Liberal government, according to Foucault (1991a, 2007), for the ﬁrst time took as its object the population rather than a territory. The techniques of power associated with governing population were, however, individualizing in the sense that the individual was not just an element within the population but also a crucial relay for its government (Foucault, 2007: 128– 29, 104).
For example, criminology – through the work 24 A History of Drugs of Lombroso, Ferri, Garofalo, Goring and others – began to identify the mental, physical and other defects which ‘caused’ criminality. As Garland (1985: 185–89) notes, in the realm of crime, this conﬂicted profoundly with the need to maintain the idea of free will, and hence responsibility, in order to justify legal punishment. The resolution of this conﬂict was achieved through the concept of ‘character’, an idea which involved a substantial reﬁguring of the ‘will’.
A History of Drugs: Drugs and Freedom in the Liberal Age by Toby Seddon