By Frans A. Oliehoek, Christopher Amato
This publication introduces multiagent making plans below uncertainty as formalized through decentralized in part observable Markov selection approaches (Dec-POMDPs). The meant viewers is researchers and graduate scholars operating within the fields of synthetic intelligence concerning sequential determination making: reinforcement studying, decision-theoretic making plans for unmarried brokers, classical multiagent making plans, decentralized regulate, and operations learn.
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Additional resources for A Concise Introduction to Decentralized POMDPs
1) are no longer guaranteed to converge for POSGs. The dynamic programming method proposed by Hansen et al. 2, does apply to POSGs: it ﬁnds the set of nondominated policies for each agent. Even though the consequences of switching to self-interested agents are severe from a computational perspective, from a modeling perspective the Dec-POMDP and POSG framework are very similar. In particular all dynamics with respect to transitions and observations are identical, and therefore computation of probabilities of action-observation histories and joint beliefs transfers to the POSG setting.
An action-observation history (AOH) for agent i, θ¯i , is the sequence of actions taken by and observations received by agent i. At a speciﬁc time step t, this is θ¯i,t = (ai,0 ,oi,1 , . . ,ai,t−1 ,oi,t ) . 1) The joint action-observation history θ¯ t = θ¯1,t , . . ,θ¯n,t speciﬁes the AOH for all agents. Agent i’s set of possible AOHs at time t is Θ¯ i,t . 2 Finally the set of all possible joint AOHs θ¯ is denoted Θ¯ . At t = 0, the (joint) AOH is empty θ¯ 0 = (). Deﬁnition 15 (Observation History).
2015]. 6 Interactive POMDPs Both the Dec-POMDP and POSG frameworks present an objective perspective of the MAS: they present a picture of the whole situation and solution methods try to ﬁnd plans for all agents at the same time. An alternative approach to MASs is to consider it from the perspective of a one particular agent, which we refer to as the subjective perspective of an MAS. 8 Explanations of these concepts as well as other concepts in this section can be found in for example the texts by Binmore , Osborne and Rubinstein  and Leyton-Brown and Shoham .
A Concise Introduction to Decentralized POMDPs by Frans A. Oliehoek, Christopher Amato